Introduction of Fastener made by UKO TC Cold Heading Dies
Fasteners are usually made by UKO Tungsten Carbide Cold Heading Dies. Fasteners are devices which permit one part to be joined to a second part and, hence, they are involved in almost all designs.
There are three main classifications of fasteners, which are described as follows:
(1) Removable. This type permits the parts to be readily disconnected without damaging the fastener. An example is the ordinary nut-and-bolt fastener.
(2) Semi permanent. For this type, the parts can be disconnected, but some damage usually occurs to the fastener. One such example is a cotter pin.
(3) Permanent. When this type of fastener is used, it is intended that the parts will never be disassembled. Examples are riveted joints and welded joints.
The importance of fasteners can be realized when referring to any complex product. In the case of the automobile, there are literally thousands of parts which are fastened together to produce the total product. The failure or loosening of a single fastener could result in a simple nuisance such as a door rattle or in a serious situation such as a wheel coming off. Such possibilities must be taken into account in the selection of the type of fastener for the specific application.
Nuts, bolts, and screws are undoubtedly the most common means of joining materials. Since they are so widely used, it is essential that these fasteners attain maximum effectiveness at the lowest possible cost. Bolts are, in reality, carefully engineered products with a practically infinite use over a wide range of services.
An ordinary nut loosens when the forces of vibration overcome those of friction. In a nut and lock washer combination, the lock washer supplies an independent locking feature preventing the nut from loosening. The lock washer is useful only when the bolt might loosen because of a relative change between the length of the bolt and the parts assembled by it. This change in the length of the bolt can be caused by a number of factors-creep in the bolt, loss of resilience, difference in thermal expansion between the bolt and the bolted members, or wear. In the above static cases, the expanding lock washer holds the nut under axial load and keeps the assembly tight. When relative changes are caused by vibration forces, the lock washer is not nearly as effective.
Rivets are permanent fasteners. They depend on deformation of their structure for their holding action. Rivets are usually stronger than the thread-type fastener and are more economical on a first-cost basis. Rivets are driven either hot or cold, depending upon the mechanical properties of the rivet material. Aluminum rivets, for instance, are cold-driven, since cold working improves the strength of aluminum. Most large rivets are hot-driven, however.