What Is the Difference in Cutting Different Metal Materials?

What Is the Difference in Cutting Different Metal Materials?

In metal cutting, there are different workpiece materials, and different materials have different cutting formation and removal characteristics. How do we understand the characteristics of different materials? ISO standard metal materials are divided into 6 different types of groups. Each type has unique characteristics in terms of workability. This article will summarize them separately.

Metal materials are divided into 6 categories:

  • P-steel
  • M-stainless steel
  • K-cast iron
  • N-non-ferrous metals
  • S-heat-resistant alloy
  • H-hardened steel

P – Steel

In the range of metal cutting, the P group is the largest material group because it covers several different industrial fields.

The material is usually a long chip material, which can form continuous and relatively uniform chips. The specific chip form usually depends on the carbon content.

  • Low carbon content = tough, sticky material.
  • High carbon content = brittle material.

Processing characteristics:

  • Long chip material.
  • Chip control is relatively easy and stable.
  • Mild steel is sticky and requires sharp cutting edges.
  • Unit cutting force kc: 1500-3100 N/mm2
  • The cutting force and power required to process ISO P materials are within a limited range.
What Is the Difference in Cutting Different Metal Materials?

M – Stainless Steel

In the M group, most applications belong to the oil and gas, pipe fittings, flanges, processing industries, and pharmaceutical industries.

The material forms irregular flake-like chips, and its cutting force is higher than that of ordinary steel. There are many different types of stainless steel. The chip breaking performance (from easy to almost impossible) varies with alloy characteristics and heat treatment.

Processing characteristics:

  • Long chip material.
  • Chip control is relatively smooth in ferrite, but difficult in austenite and duplex.
  • Unit cutting force: 1800-2850 N/mm2
  • High cutting force, built-up edge, heat and work hardening during machining.
What Is the Difference in Cutting Different Metal Materials?

K – Cast Iron

Group K is mainly used in auto parts, machine manufacturing and ironmaking.

The chip formation of materials is different, from approximately powdered chips to long chips. The power required to process this material group is usually small.

Note that there is a big difference between gray cast iron (usually the chips are approximately powdery) and ductile cast iron, the chip breaking of the latter is often more similar to steel.

Processing characteristics:

  • Short chip material.
  • Good chip control under all working conditions.
  • Unit cutting force: 790-1350 N/mm2
  • Machining at higher speeds will cause abrasive wear.
  • Medium cutting force.
What Is the Difference in Cutting Different Metal Materials?

N – Non-ferrous Metals

The aircraft industry and aluminum alloy car wheel manufacturers occupy a dominant position in the N group.

Although the power required per mm3 (cubic inch) is low, in order to obtain a high metal removal rate, it is still necessary to calculate the maximum power required.

Processing characteristics:

  • Long chip material.
  • If it is an alloy, chip control is relatively easy.
  • Non-ferrous metals (Al) are sticky and require sharp cutting edges.
  • Unit cutting force: 350-700 N/mm2
  • The cutting force and power required to process ISO N materials are within a limited range.
What Is the Difference in Cutting Different Metal Materials?

S – Heat-resistant Alloy

Group S materials that are difficult to process are mainly used in the aerospace, gas turbine and generator industries.

The range is wide, but there is usually a high cutting force.

Processing characteristics:

  • Long chip material.
  • Difficult chip control (serrated chips).
  • For ceramics, a negative rake angle is required, and for cemented carbide, a positive rake angle is required.
  • Unit cutting force:
    • For heat-resistant alloys: 2400–3100 N/mm2
    • For titanium alloy: 1300-1400 N/mm2
  • The cutting force and power required are high.
What Is the Difference in Cutting Different Metal Materials?

H – Hardened Steel

The hardened steels in Group H are used in various industries, such as the automotive industry and its subcontractors, as well as machine manufacturing and mold business.

Usually continuous, red-hot chips. This high temperature helps reduce the kc1 value, which is important to help solve application problems.

Processing characteristics:

  • Long chip material.
  • Relatively good chip control.
  • A negative rake angle is required.
  • Unit cutting force: 2550-4870 N/mm2
  • The cutting force and power required are high.
What Is the Difference in Cutting Different Metal Materials?

UKO can provide professional solutions and metal cutting tools for processing various metal materials, such as CNC turning inserts, milling inserts, end mills, and various tool holders. What’s workpiece material do you need processing for?

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