Metal cutting tools including Carbide Inserts,Tungsten Carbide Welding Insert and CNC Inserts: Ceramic Turning Inserts, Milling Inserts, Threading Inserts, Grooving Inserts, Drilling Inserts; High-Speed Steel Cutting Tools, Including Drilling, Milling, Threading, Tap Tools.
Carbide Circular Saw Blade has widely used Metalworking Cutting Tools. Hundreds of types and stocks to ensure fast delivery. Smart cutting solution for steel/stainless steel/cast iron/Aluminium and other kinds of metals.
With our in-depth knowledge of Metal Cutting and insight into the different challenges of different industries, we strive to develop innovative solutions in cooperation with you to meet your current and future demands.
Carbide End Mill
End Mills are the most commonly used Metalworking Cutting Tools for CNC and manual mills and usually are used for machining the sides and faces of a workpiece. UKOcarbide offers high-speed steel (HSS) and carbide options, along with a variety of CNC Tools sizes, shank types, flutes, coatings, and other features.
Carbide Circular Saw Blade
The precision-cut of a Carbide-tipped Blade helps to avoid kerf tear out for smoother and more precise cuts, Improved cutting results, and Extended use, saving you time and money over the long term. Each Circular Saw Blade is carefully crafted and meticulously tested to ensure it will meet and exceed your highest expectations.
End Mill & Milling Cutters
UKOcarbide offers a complete selection of angle, radius, side, T-slot cutters and more to tackle all your machining jobs. We also carry a full range of HSS End Mill, cobalt, and powder-coated metal to match your needs.
Complete a variety of metalworking tasks with UKOcarbide's Indexable Cutting Inserts. Choose from Diamond Inserts, Square Carbide Inserts, Octagon Carbide Inserts, Pentagon Carbide Inserts, Round Carbide Inserts, and Special Carbide Inserts. Manufacture Indexable Cutting Tools for threading, parting, drilling, turning, milling and more.
Carbide Welding Milling Cutters
Carbide Welding Inserts, have high hardness, wear resistance, heat resistance, high cutting performance, long life, and other advantages. By arbor welded carbide blade, welding forming connected into one. And compared with overall mechanical clamping type Tungsten Carbide Cutting Tools, it has a lower cost, this kind of tool in the machinery manufacturing industry has been widely used.
UKOcarbide's premium ceramic grades ensure the user's higher productivity. All of the grades show superior high-temperature hardness, heat resistance, and chemical stability. We offer many types of Ceramic Cutting Tools in a variety of geometries to meet customer demands.
Tungsten Carbide Rods
Cemented Tungsten Carbide has many excellent characteristics such as high hardness and strength, good wear and corrosion resistance and salient stability under high temperature, Tungsten Carbide Rods used in making the Drill Bits, End-mills, reamers, automobile special cutters, and etc.
How To Choose the Material of Metal Cutting Tools?
At present, the metal cutting tool materials used by many companies on the market mainly include: tool steel, cemented carbide, ceramics, and superhard tool materials. Among these materials, tool steel is divided into carbon tool steel, alloy tool steel, and high-speed steel. Among these materials, high-speed steel and hardened steel are the most used.
How to choose the material of metal cutting tools?
- Applicable scenario 1: Medium and low speed cutting (tool steel materials should be used because of its poor heat resistance but high bending strength, low price and good welding and sharpening performance).
- Applicable scenario 2: The cutting speed is very low (it is better to use carbon tool steel tools, because after heat treatment, the hardness is reduced, the carbide distribution is uneven, the deformation after quenching is large, cracks are easy to produce, the hardenability is poor, and the hardened layer thin).
- Application scenario 3: Low-speed tools (alloy tool steel should be used because of its high hardenability, toughness, wear resistance and heat resistance).
- Applicable scenario 4: Most turning tools, end mills and part of the end mills and part of the body or mold of the end mill (carbide should be used because it has good heat resistance, high cutting efficiency, good strength and toughness, and wear , Corrosion resistance, etc.).
- Application scenario 5: Fine processing of hard materials at high speed (ceramic should be used because it has the advantages of high hardness, wear resistance, heat resistance, chemical stability, low friction coefficient, low strength and toughness, and low thermal conductivity).
- Applicable scenario 6: Cutting all kinds of hardened steel, all kinds of iron-based, nickel-based, cobalt-based and other thermal spraying (welding) parts (super-hard tools should be used because it has excellent mechanical properties, physical properties and other performance).
What Are the Metalworking Cutting Tool Parameters?
When choosing metalworking cutting tools, it is necessary to consider the influence of many factors, such as workpiece material, tool material, processing properties (rough and finishing), etc., which must be selected reasonably according to the specific situation. Generally speaking, the tool angle refers to the marking angle used for manufacturing and measurement. In actual work, due to the different installation positions of the tool and the change of the cutting motion direction, the actual working angle and the marked angle are different, but the difference is usually very small. .
The material used to make the tool must have high high temperature hardness and wear resistance, the necessary bending strength, impact toughness and chemical inertness, good manufacturability (cutting, forging, heat treatment, etc.), and not easy to deform.
Generally, when the material hardness is high, the wear resistance is also high; when the bending strength is high, the impact toughness is also high. But the higher the material hardness, the lower its bending strength and impact toughness. Due to its high bending strength and impact toughness, as well as good machinability, high-speed steel is still the most widely used tool material in modern times, followed by cemented carbide.
Polycrystalline cubic boron nitride is suitable for cutting high hardness hardened steel and hard cast iron, etc.; polycrystalline diamond is suitable for cutting non-ferrous metals, alloys, plastics and glass steel, etc.; carbon tool steel and alloy tool steel are only used now For files, dies, taps and other tools.
Cemented carbide indexable inserts have now been coated with titanium carbide, titanium nitride, aluminum oxide hard layer or composite hard layer by chemical vapor deposition. The developing physical vapor deposition method can be used not only for cemented carbide tools, but also for high-speed steel tools, such as drills, hobs, taps and milling cutters. The hard coating acts as a barrier to hinder chemical diffusion and thermal conduction, slowing down the wear rate of the tool during cutting, and the life of the coated blade is approximately 1 to 3 times longer than that of the uncoated blade.
Due to the parts that work under high temperature, high pressure, high speed, and corrosive fluid medium, more and more difficult-to-machine materials are used, and the automation level of cutting processing and the requirements for machining accuracy are getting higher and higher. In order to adapt to this situation, the development direction of the tool will be the development and application of new tool materials; further develop the vapor deposition coating technology of the tool, deposit a higher hardness coating on the high toughness and high strength substrate, and better solve the problem The contradiction between the hardness and strength of the tool material; further develop the structure of the indexable tool; improve the manufacturing accuracy of the tool, reduce the difference in product quality, and optimize the use of the tool.
According to the cutting motion mode and the corresponding blade shape, the cutting tools can be divided into three categories. General tools, such as turning tools, planers, milling cutters (not including shaped turning tools, shaped planers and shaped milling cutters), boring cutters, drills, reamers, reamers and saws, etc.; shaping tools, the cutting edges of such tools It has the same or close to the same shape as the cross-section of the workpiece to be processed, such as forming turning tools, forming planing cutters, forming milling cutters, broaches, conical reamers and various thread processing tools, etc.; generating tools are used to process gears by the generating method Tooth surface or similar workpieces, such as hobs, gear shapers, gear shaving cutters, bevel gear planers and bevel gear milling cutters.
The structure of various tools is composed of a clamping part and a working part. The clamping part and the working part of the cutter with integral structure are made on the cutter body; the working part (tooth or blade) of the cutter with insert structure is mounted on the cutter body.
The clamping part of the tool has two types: with hole and with shank. Hole cutters rely on the inner hole to be sleeved on the main shaft or mandrel of the machine tool, and transmit the torsion moment with the aid of axial keys or face keys, such as cylindrical milling cutters, sleeve face milling cutters, etc.
Shank tools usually have rectangular shank, cylindrical shank and tapered shank. Turning tools, planers, etc. are generally rectangular shanks; tapered shanks *taper bears axial thrust and transfer torque by friction; cylindrical shanks are generally suitable for smaller twist drills, end mills and other tools. The friction force generated transmits the torsional moment. The shank of many shank tools is made of low-alloy steel, while the working part is made of high-speed steel butt-welded two parts.
The working part of the tool is the part that generates and processes the chips, including the cutting edge, the structure to break or roll up the chips, the space for chip removal or storage, and the passage of cutting fluid.
The working part of some tools is the cutting part, such as turning tools, planers, boring cutters and milling cutters, etc.; the working part of some tools includes cutting parts and calibration parts, such as drills, reamers, reamers, and inner surface drawing. Knife and tap etc. The function of the cutting part is to remove chips with the cutting edge, and the function of the calibration part is to polish the cut surface and guide the tool.
The structure of the working part of the cutter has three types: integral type, welding type and mechanical clamping type. The overall structure is to make the cutting edge on the cutter body; the welding structure is to braze the blade to the steel cutter body; there are two mechanical clamping structures, one is to clamp the blade on the cutter body, the other is It is to clamp the brazed cutter head on the cutter body. Cemented carbide cutting tools are generally made of welded structure or mechanical clamping structure; porcelain cutting tools adopt mechanical clamping structure.
What Are the Common Types of Metal Cutting Tools?
With the increasing popularity of cutting technology, higher and higher requirements are put forward for the manufacture of metal working tools. Machining tools are no longer satisfied with rough metal tools that can realize basic metal working functions, but need metalworking cutting tools with reasonable structure, exquisite craftsmanship, excellent performance and convenient use. The performance of cutting tools used by different equipment is different. The following briefly introduces what are the common types of cutting tools:
First. Types of machine tools
A lathe is a machine tool that mainly uses a turning tool to turn a rotating workpiece. Drills, reamers, reamers, taps, dies and knurling tools can also be used on the lathe for corresponding processing.
- Boring machine
A machine tool that mainly uses a boring tool to boring the existing pre-made holes of the workpiece. It is mainly used to process high-precision holes or finish machining of multiple holes at one time. In addition, it can also be used to process other machining surfaces related to hole finishing. Different tools and accessories can also be used for drilling, milling, and cutting. The machining accuracy and surface quality are higher than those of drilling machines.
- Milling machine
Refers to machine tools that mainly use milling cutters to cut various surfaces on the workpiece. Usually, the rotary motion of the milling cutter is the main motion, and the movement of the workpiece milling cutter is the feed motion. It can cut surfaces, grooves, and can also be used for various curved surfaces, gears, etc.
Second. the type of clamping tool handle
- Spring knife handle
The tapered spring collet is gradually contracted during the axial movement (locking) process to realize the clamping of the cutting tool. Good clamping versatility and high precision. Mainly used for drills, reamers, precision end mills, etc.
- Hydraulic tool holder
The use of hydraulic pressure to shrink the inner diameter of the tool holder to realize the clamping tool is the simplest clamping method among all tool holders; it has high precision, waterproof and dustproof. Mainly used for high-precision cutting of end mills, cemented carbide drills, diamond reamers, etc.
- Heat shrinkable tool holder
The difference between the coefficient of thermal expansion between the handle and the cutting tool is used to realize the clamping of the cutting tool. The anti-interference degree is good; but it can only clamp a cutting tool of one size; special heating and cooling devices are required, and the safety degree is poor. Mainly used for cutting processes with high interference requirements.
- Powerful milling tool holder
The nut compresses the tool handle body to shrink, and the cutting tool is clamped. The clamping force is the largest among all clamping tool holders, and is mainly used for heavy cutting of end mills.
- Side-fixed handle
The cutting tool is locked by the side fixing screw, the structure is simple, the clamping force is large; but the accuracy and versatility are poor. Generally used for rough work such as drills and milling cutters that flatten the shank.
Three. the type of tool material
- Alloy tool steel
It has high thermal hardness but low price. It is often used to manufacture low-speed tools with complex shapes, such as reamers, taps and dies.
- High-speed tool steel
Its high temperature hardness and wear resistance are better than alloy tool steel. Because of its good heat treatment performance, high strength and good sharpness, it is widely used in the manufacture of forming turning tools, milling cutters, drills and broaching tools.
- Cemented carbide
It is an alloy made of tungsten carbide, titanium carbide and cobalt by powder metallurgy. Usually the cemented carbide insert is fixed on the tool body for use. At present, cemented carbide has become one of the main tool materials.
Fourth. the type of cutting oil
- Tool steel cutter: its heat-resistant temperature is low, and it can only be used for cutting general materials, and it will lose hardness at high temperatures. Due to the poor heat resistance of this tool, the cooling performance of the cutting oil is required to be good.
- High-speed steel tools: This material is a high-grade alloy steel based on chromium, nickel, tungsten, molybdenum, and vanadium (some also containing aluminum). Their heat resistance is significantly higher than that of tool steel. Compared with other high-temperature resistant metal and ceramic materials, high-speed steel is suitable for workpieces with complex geometric shapes and continuous cutting. Using cutting oil when cutting with high-speed steel tools can effectively avoid problems such as workpiece burns, quality degradation, and tool wear.
- Cemented carbide tools: The cemented carbide used for cutting tools is composed of tungsten carbide, titanium carbide, tantalum carbide, etc. Its hardness is much higher than that of high-speed steel, and it has excellent heat resistance. When cutting steel materials, it can reduce the bonding phenomenon between chips. Cemented carbide tools generally use special cutting oils containing anti-wear additives.
What Are the Categories of Metal Cutting Tools?
There are many categories of metal cutting tools, but the geometry and parameters of their cutting parts have commonality. All metal cutting tools can be divided into four categories according to technological characteristics:
- Round rod type: The important sign of round rod-shaped tools (drills, countersinks, end mills, taps, shank broaches, gear shapers, etc.) is that their working parts are round rods and have cylindrical or tapered shanks.
- Set type: including tools with round or tapered holes (set type countersinks, reamers, milling cutters, taps, etc.). Set-type (sleeve-type) tools can be divided into integral, assembled, welded cemented carbide, solid cemented carbide and special tools.
- Disc type: Disc tool refers to a tool with a cylindrical or conical hole whose length is less than half of the diameter (disk milling cutter, groove milling cutter and angle milling cutter, disk shaper blade, disk shaving blade, end face Sudden drill, round blade, etc.). Disc cutters can be divided into integral, welded, assembled and solid carbide.
- Plane type: Plane-shaped cutters include rod-shaped and prismatic cutters, teeth of fabricated cutters, rack cutters and thread comb cutters, hammer cutter blocks, thread rolling boards, flat broaches, etc. The hallmark of this type of tool is that its shape is a wide plane and a narrow plane. Planar cutters can be divided into integral, welded, dedicated and assembled.
What Is a Cutting Tools?
Cutting tools are tools used for cutting in mechanical manufacturing. Most of the knives are machine-made, but there are also hand-made ones. Since the tools used in mechanical manufacturing are basically used to cut metal materials, the term "tool" is generally understood as a metal cutting tool. The tools used to cut wood are called woodworking tools.
The cutter can be divided into five categories according to the form of the workpiece processing surface:
- Tools for processing various external surfaces, including turning tools, planers, milling cutters, external surface broaches and files, etc.;
- Hole processing tools, including drills, reamers, boring tools, reamers and inner surface broaches, etc.;
- Thread processing tools, including tap, die, automatic opening and closing thread cutting head, thread turning tool and thread milling cutter, etc.;
- Gear cutting tools, including hob, gear shaping knife, shaving cutter, bevel gear cutting tools, etc.;
- Cutting tools, including serrated circular saw blades, band saws, bow saws, cutting turning tools and saw blade milling cutters, etc.
In addition, there are combination tools.
According to the cutting motion mode and the corresponding blade shape, the tools can be divided into three categories:
- General-purpose tools, such as turning tools, planing tools, and milling tools (not including formed turning tools, forming planers, and forming milling tools), boring tools, drill bits, reamers, reamers, and saws, etc.;
- Forming tools, the cutting edges of these tools have the same or nearly the same shape as the workpiece to be processed, such as forming turning tools, forming planers, forming milling cutters, broaches, cone reamers and various thread processing tools, etc.;
- The spreading tool is to process the tooth surface of gears or similar workpieces, such as hob, gear shaper, shaving cutter, bevel gear planer and bevel gear milling cutter, etc.
How to Sharpen Milling Cutters?
Grinding method of hard alloy tapered shank end mill:
Just buy a tool grinder, or use a mill grinder to repair it. The working table adopts a high-precision linear rolling guide, the bed is stable, and the operation is lightweight.
Various accessories can be matched according to the tool to be ground. Various end mills, end mills, R-type cutters, cylindrical cutters, three-sided edge cutters, single-angle cutters, reamers, turning tools, R Turning tools, hobbing cutters, drills, taps, engraving knives, powerful cutting tools, cutting knives and other types of tools
Types and Uses of Carbide Milling Cutters?
Tungsten carbide milling cutters are mainly used in CNC machining centers and CNC engraving machines. It can also be installed on ordinary milling machines to process some relatively hard and uncomplicated heat-treated materials.
1. Carbide cylindrical milling cutter: used for machining plane on the horizontal milling machine. The cutter teeth are distributed on the circumference of the milling cutter and are divided into straight teeth and spiral teeth according to the tooth shape. There are two types of coarse teeth and fine teeth according to the number of teeth. Spiral tooth coarse milling cutter has few teeth, high tooth strength, large chip space, and is suitable for rough machining; fine-tooth milling cutter is suitable for finishing.
2. Carbide faces milling cutter: It is used for machining planes on vertical milling machines, face milling machines or gantry milling machines. There are cutter teeth on the end face and the circumference, and there are coarse teeth and fine teeth. Its structure has three types: integral type, inlay type, and indexable type.
3. Cemented carbide end mills: used for machining grooves and stepped surfaces, etc. The cutter teeth are on the circumference and the end surface, and cannot be fed in the axial direction during work. When the end mill has end teeth that pass through the center, it can feed axially.
4.Cemented carbide three-sided edge milling cutter: It is used to process various grooves and stepped surfaces, and both sides and circumference have cutter teeth.
5. Carbide angle milling cutter: It is used for milling grooves with a certain angle. There are two types of single-angle and double-angle milling cutters.
6. Hard alloy saw blade milling cutter: It is used to process deep grooves and cut off workpieces, and there are more cutter teeth on its circumference. In order to reduce the friction during milling, there are auxiliary deflection angles of 15 ′ ~ 1 ° on both sides of the cutter teeth. In addition, there are keyway milling cutters, dovetail milling cutters, T-slot milling cutters, and various forming milling cutters.
Do I Need to Add Working Fluid When Using Carbide End Mills?
Cemented carbide indexable milling cutters generally do not cast cutting fluid when milling steel. When the amount of cutting fluid is sufficient for sufficient cooling, it is also possible to cast cutting fluid (usually water-soluble cutting fluid).
In the case of fine milling, in order to improve the tool life and the surface quality of the workpiece, it is best to use cutting fluid to sufficiently cool it. When cemented carbide milling cutters are pouring cutting fluid, they must be carried out at the same time or in advance of cutting. It is not allowed to start pouring during the cutting.
- When milling stainless steel, non-water-soluble cutting fluids are generally used to improve milling performance.
- When milling cast iron, cutting fluid is generally not used, and cutting fluid is only used in rare cases to solve the problem of dust during cutting.
- When milling aluminum alloy, cutting fluid can be used, the main purpose is to cool and improve the surface quality of the workpiece.
- When the end mill and the three-face milling cutter are used for machining grooves, it is recommended to use water-soluble cutting fluid or compressed air for sufficient cooling because of the closed cutting and high temperature.
What Is the Linear Speed of a 4-Blade Carbide End Mill With a Diameter of 10 When Cutting?
Calculated as follows:
Diameter * π = perimeter, linear speed / perimeter = speed, feed / speed / 4 edges = cutting amount per edge
Number of blades 4
10.00000 mm diameter
Circumference 31.41593 mm
Linear speed 70000.00000 mm / min
Speed 2228.16920 rpm
500.00000 mm / min
Cutting edge 0.05610 mm
How to Use and Maintain Carbide Circular Saw Blades?
Carbide circular saw blade is suitable for cutting alloy structural steel, carburizing steel, high-speed steel, spring steel, and other hard alloy materials, as well as various aluminum materials. The use and maintenance of cemented carbide films are as follows:
1. Carbide saw blades are made of solid carbide and have sharp and sensitive cutting edges. Therefore, during the movement, installation, and removal of the saw blade, the alloy head must be carefully protected from damage. The alloy head of the carbide disc saw blade has sharp and sensitive cutting edges. Therefore, during the movement, installation, and removal of the saw blade, the alloy head must be carefully protected from damage.
2. Regularly check the radial runout of the machine's main shaft (± 0.02mm) and swing amplitude (± 0.01mm).
3. Before the saw blade is installed, the sundries on the spindle and flange must be removed. The flange surface should be flat, clean and perpendicular to the shaft.
4. Use the largest flange possible to make the saw blade run more smoothly. The size of the flange should be the same. The size of the flange is 1/3 of the diameter of the saw blade. The sawing effect is better.
5. After the saw blade is installed smoothly, it should be idling for 30 seconds, and then start cutting after confirming that everything is normal.
6. When installing the saw blade, the flange nut must be moderately tight. The over-loose saw blade will slip during rotary cutting, and the over-tight saw blade will have internal injuries or deformation affecting the cutting effect.
7. Before cutting, the operator must bring protective equipment (protective glasses, dust mask, hard hat, protective gloves) and check whether the protective cover of the saw is intact.
8. The debris, such as resin, debris, that accumulates on the sides of the sawtooth and the snowboard must be removed regularly because the accumulation of stickies will increase the resistance and cause high energy consumption (in extreme cases, it will cause the machine motor to burn) and Rough cutting quality. If the cutting edge is blunt at the same time, it may cause sawtooth damage.
9. Avoid the use of corrosive solvents when cleaning. When the saw blade is not used for a long time, it should be cleaned and sharpened, oiled for rust prevention, and placed in the original carton.
What Is an Indexable Cutting Tool?
Indexable tools usually consist of a steel body. A blade socket is machined on the blade body to precisely position the blade. The steel blade body needs to clamp the blade, and the combination of the blade body and the blade can be installed on the processing machine.
Advantages of indexable tools over whole tools
Before using cemented carbide indexable inserts, the overall tool needs to be removed from the processing machine and reground. Due to the heavy workload of regrind, large factories usually set up regrind workshops to specialize in regrinding tools. Therefore, one of the most significant benefits of using indexable tools is that the cutting edge can be updated without having to remove the tool from the production site. Renewing the cutting edge of a blade is usually accomplished by loosening the clamped blade, rotating or turning (inverting) the blade to a new cutting edge, or installing a brand new blade to replace a completely worn blade.
Although solid drills, taps, and other solid tools are still used in some applications, indexable turning tools have become dominant in modern turning processes. With the popularity of CNC machine tools, indexable tools have effectively replaced high-speed steel tools, carbide brazed tools and special forming tools. With the multi-axis linkage of CNC machine tools and almost no need for special turning tools, indexable turning tools can simplify the generation of complex shapes.
In addition, the use of indexable drills on lathes also has advantages over the use of traditional solid high-speed steel or carbide drills. Usually, the indexable bit is used for drilling first, and then the bit is offset from the center of the hole to expand the hole so that a boring tool is not required for boring. Since the turret tool post of a CNC lathe usually damages the standard drill bit due to misalignment due to wear and tear, the use of indexable drill bits will better adapt to this misalignment situation.
Indexable turning tools from different tool manufacturers have great versatility. Turning inserts are manufactured in commonly used shapes such as diamonds, squares, and circles. The shape and size of the inserts conform to ANSI and ISO standards. This versatility gives craftsmen the freedom to choose the blade material and edge geometry. Since all major tool manufacturers produce turning inserts to relevant standards, it is relatively easy to choose an insert with the best performance.
Unlike turning tools, indexable milling cutter bodies of different tool manufacturers use different insert shapes and geometries, and users can only buy milling inserts corresponding to the tool manufacturer. Nonetheless, tool manufacturers have developed a series of milling cutter bodies for their proprietary insert shapes. One type of insert can be used on a series of cutter bodies, thereby reducing inventory and allowing more flexible use by craftsmen.
Most tool manufacturers can customize non-standard indexable forming tools. Forming and milling tools are still an effective way to complete complex shapes and can increase production efficiency and reduce tool inventory. In general, parts with steps, arcs, and chamfers need to be machined with multiple tools. If combined indexable forming tools are used for processing, it can shorten production time, reduce tool inventory and improve part quality.
Custom non-indexable tools are expensive and often require modification of the insert, so the insert is expensive. For these reasons, custom indexable tools are often used in high-volume production or to make expensive parts.
A major technological advancement of indexable milling tools is the rough milling of the large cavity of the mold. Due to the long length of the roughing tool used in deep cavities or steps, in traditional machining processes, cutting feed on the side of the tool will induce tool vibration. The rough machining insert milling cutter feeds in the axial direction so that the cutting force can be guided to the taper part of the spindle with the most rigid machine tool. Rough milling with plunge milling when extremely long tools are required can result in high metal removal rates.
Metal Cutting Principles and Tool Knowledge
● What types of turning tools are classified according to their use and structure? How are they used?
Answer: Turning tools are divided according to usage, as follows: External turning tools, end turning tools, inner hole turning tools, cutting turning tools, thread turning tools, forming turning tools, etc. divided by structure
(1) Overall turning tools: small tools and tools for processing non-ferrous metals
(2) Welding turning tools: all kinds of tools, especially small tools
(3) Machine-clamping turning tools: large turning tools, thread turning tools, cutting turning tools
(4) Indexable lathe tool with machine clamp: ordinary lathe tool, automatic line, CNC machine tool
● Advantages and disadvantages of the use performance of welding turning tools
Advantages: The welding turning tool has a simple and compact structure; good rigidity and strong vibration resistance; easy manufacturing and sharpening; flexible use.
Disadvantages: the blade is welded at high temperature, the strength and hardness are reduced, and the cutting performance is reduced; the blade material generates internal stress, which is prone to cracks and other defects; the tool holder cannot be reused, wasting raw materials; the tool change and tool setting time is longer, not suitable for automatic Lathes and CNC lathes.
● Cut-welding type and parameter selection of knife slot
Common sipe shapes include open grooves, semi-closed grooves, closed grooves and cut grooves. The opening slot is simple to manufacture, has the smallest welding area, and the internal stress of the blade is small. It is suitable for A1 and C3 blades.
The semi-closed groove blade has a large welding area and the blade is welded firmly. It can only be processed with a single piece of end mill during manufacturing. The production efficiency is low. It is suitable for A2, A3 and A4 type blades. Welding is reliable. After welding, the internal stress of the blade is large and cracks are easy to occur. It is suitable for C1 and C3 blades.
● Indexable turning tool features:
Indexable turning tool consists of blade, tool pad, clamping element and tool holder. Compared with welding turning tools, it avoids the internal stress caused by welding and sharpening. Coated blades can be used. They have a reasonable groove shape and geometric parameters. The blades are indexed quickly and are easily replaced. Long life and high productivity, and can achieve multi-purpose tool, reduce tool reserve, simplify tool management.
● Indexable turning tool clamping method: lever type, wedge hook type, wedge pin type, upper pressure type, claw type upper pressure type, screw pin upper pressure type, pressure hole type.
● Selection of indexable turning tools:
1. Select the shape and size of the tool holder.
2. Select the cutter head form and main declination angle.
3. Selection of clamping structure for indexable turning tools.
4. Select the brand and model of the blade according to the specific processing conditions and processing requirements.
5. When necessary, check the geometric angle of the indexable turning tool.
● What types of forming turning tools are classified according to structure and shape? What are the types of feed?
Answer: According to structure and shape
1. Flat body forming turning tool
2. Edge-shaped turning tool
3. Round body turning tool
According to the way of feeding
1. Tangential feed forming turning tool
2. Oblique feed forming turning tool
● Are the front and rear angles of the points on the cutting edge of the forming turning tool the same? why?
Answer: The front and rear angles of each point on the cutting edge of the forming turning tool are not equal. Because: the rake angle of the forming turning tool is not zero, when cutting, the reference point of the cutting edge is adjusted to the height of the center of the workpiece, so the rake angle at the reference point is the nominal backing angle of the forming turning tool.
The remaining points on the cutting edge are lower than the horizontal position of the center of the workpiece. The positions of the cutting plane and the base surface of the remaining points are changed. Therefore, the cutting plane and the base surface of each point are behind the front point, and the back angle and front formed by the front point The angles are different. The farther away from the center of the workpiece, the larger the back angle and the smaller the front angle (the change rule of the front and back angle of the forming turning tool)
● Forming turning tool profile design:
1. The main contents of the drawing method design: known part profile, tool rake angle γf and back angle αf, the maximum radius R of the round turning tool profile, find out that the cutting edge is perpendicular to the back knife by drawing The projection on the surface.
2. Calculation method design
● Specify in which projection plane the part profile and forming turning tool profile are measured, under what conditions are the two profiles the same?
Answer: The part profile is measured in the projection equivalent to the base surface, and the forming turning tool profile is measured in the projection perpendicular to the flank surface of the tool.
When the front angle and the back angle of the forming turning tool are 0 degrees, the two profiles are the same
● Sharpening of forming turning tools: The sharpening of prismatic forming turning tools is relatively simple, as long as a simple two-way universal sharpening fixture is used on the tool grinding machine, the vertical line of the back surface of the tool and the surface of the grinding wheel is (rf + af) Sharpen at an angle. When the end surface of the round body turning tool is engraved with a sharpening inspection circle, apply a layer of red powder oil to the end surface, draw a tangent of the inspection circle with a scribe, and then install the tool on the mandrel to adjust the tangent of the inspection circle to The grinding wheel can be sharpened when the working surface of the grinding wheel coincides.
● Which of the angles in the profile does the front angle and back angle of the forming turning tool refer to? why? Why do we need to specify the front and rear angles at the reference point?
Answer: The front and back angles of the forming turning tool are within the specified longitudinal section (assuming the working surface) (feed surface). This is convenient: measuring, manufacturing and regrinding the front and rear angles of each point of the cutting edge of the forming turning tool They are not the same. When cutting, the reference point of the cutting edge is adjusted to the height of the center of the workpiece. Therefore, the front and rear angles at the reference point are the nominal back angle of the forming turning tool.
● Structure of twist drill: clamping part, working part, cutting part
● The sharpening angle of the drill bit: ordinary twist drills only need to sharpen the two backs to control three angles.
1. The apex angle (2Φ) the apex angle is the angle between the two main cutting edges projected on the interrupted surface. Ordinary twist drill 2Φ = 116 ° ~ 125 °
2. Outside edge clearance angle (αf) The clearance angle of the main cutting edge expressed in the column cross section at the corner of the land, can be measured by the method of tool microscope projection. Medium diameter drill bit αf = 8 ° ~ 20 °. The smaller the diameter, the larger the back angle of the drill bit to improve the sharpness of the cutting edge.
3. Oblique angle of transverse blade (ψ) end plane measured blunt angle between the discontinuity and transverse blade Ordinary twist drill ψ = 133 ° ~ 125 °, where the drill bit with small diameter, the ψ angle is allowed to be larger. The value of the angle ψ of the transverse edge is closely related to the clearance angle of the cutting edge at the center of the drill bit. Since the clearance angle at the center of the drill is not easy to measure, the center edge clearance angle is usually controlled by measuring the angle ψ.
● When sharpening the back of the drill, you need to control the back angle of the center of the drill: the closer to the center of the drill, the larger the back angle.
Its purpose is twofold: The first is to enable the blade to obtain a larger rake angle and increase the sharpness of the blade.
The second is to make the working angle of the cutting edge differ less at each point. In order to make the working angle of the inner and outer cutting edges similar, the back angle of the drill core should be ground larger. Generally, the core cutting edge clearance angle is equal to the transverse edge clearance angle, which is about 36 °
● Why is the back angle of the twist drill marked in the outer circumferential column profile? Why is the back angle near the center of the drill bit larger?
Answer: The back angle of the twist drill is marked in the outer circumferential column section to facilitate sharpening and measurement. The back angle value near the center of the drill bit should be sharpened because:
1. Make the cutting edge have a larger rake angle and increase the sharpness of the cutting edge
2. There is less difference in angle after working at each point on the cutting edge.
3. In order to adapt to the change of the rake angle, the wedge angle of each point on the cutting edge is approximately equal and the strength is equivalent.
● What are the structural defects of ordinary twist drills?
Answer: The common twist drill has the following disadvantages due to its own structure:
(1) The rake angle of each point on the main cutting edge varies greatly
(2) The transverse blade is too long, so it will generate a large axial force.
(3) The main cutting edge is long, which is not conducive to chip separation and chip breaking.
(4) The secondary clearance angle of the secondary cutting edge at the land is zero, which causes increased friction between the secondary flank face and the hole wall, the cutting temperature rises, the outer corner of the drill bit wears more, and the roughness of the processed surface deteriorates .
● What are the characteristics (defects) of deep hole machining? What are the key technologies?
Answer: Features: During deep hole machining, the shank is slender and the rigidity is poor; it is difficult to introduce cutting fluid into the cutting area, the chips are not easy to discharge, and the drill tip is difficult to cool; the cutting speed of each point on the cutting edge varies greatly, especially near the center The cutting speed at the location is zero, and the cutting conditions are poor; the torque and axial force are large, drilling is difficult, and it is easy to deflect, resulting in low tool durability and productivity. The key technology of deep hole machining is the geometry of deep hole drilling and the problem of cooling and chip removal.
● Reaming drill: a tool used to enlarge the hole diameter and improve the quality of the processed hole. It is used for final machining of holes or pre-machining before reaming and grinding.
● Sink countersink: used to process countersunk holes, tapered holes and boss surfaces of various countersunk screws.
● Boring cutter: The boring cutter is used to process various types of holes with different diameters, especially holes and hole systems that require high position accuracy.
● The difference between single-edge boring cutter and double-edge boring cutter: Single-edge boring cutter boring features
(1) The structure is simple, with greater flexibility and adaptability;
(2) The deflection and position error of the axis of the bottom hole can be corrected;
(3) The boring bar has poor rigidity, small cutting amount, and low productivity. It is generally used for single piece and small batch production.
The characteristics of double-edge boring tool boring:
(1) The boring blade has a smoothing edge, and the surface processing quality is high,
(2) The boring blades float radially and the machining accuracy is high;
(3) high production efficiency, double-edged cutting, easy operation;
(4) The cutter structure is complicated, and the cutter sharpening requirements are high, and the cutting edge should be symmetrical. It is generally used for mass production of larger apertures.
● Milling amount: back-feeding amount ap, side-feeding amount ae, feed motion parameters (feed amount per tooth fz, feed amount f, feed speed vf)
● Milling cutter cutting layer parameters: nominal thickness of the cutting layer hD (abbreviated as cutting thickness), nominal width of the cutting layer bD (abbreviated as cutting width), average total cutting layer nominal cross-sectional area ADav (abbreviated as average total cutting area)
● Climb milling and reverse milling When the rotation direction of the milling cutter and the feed direction of the workpiece are the same, it is called as down milling, and on the contrary, it is called up milling. Difference: During up-cutting, the cutting thickness of each cutter changes gradually from small to large. When the cutter teeth are just in contact with the workpiece, the cutting thickness is zero. Only when the cutter teeth slide a certain distance on the cutting surface left by the previous cutter teeth and the cutting thickness reaches a certain value, the cutter teeth really start cutting.
Down milling makes the cutting thickness gradually change from large to small, and the sliding distance of the cutter teeth on the cutting surface is also very small. In addition, when milling down, the distance traveled by the cutter teeth on the workpiece is shorter than that of up milling. Therefore, under the same cutting conditions, when using reverse milling, the tool is prone to wear. Simultaneous milling is also more conducive to chip evacuation. Generally, the milling method should be used as much as possible to improve the surface finish (reduce the roughness) of the processed parts and ensure the dimensional accuracy. However, when there is a hard layer on the cutting surface, slag accumulation, and unevenness on the surface of the workpiece is more obvious, such as processing forged blanks, the reverse milling method should be used.
● The way of milling cutter damage: cutting, chipping, thermal fatigue damage.
● Measures to prevent damage to the milling cutter
1. Reasonably choose the brand of milling cutter blade.
2. Reasonable selection of milling dosage.
3. Reasonably choose the relative position between the milling cutter and the workpiece.
● Types of thread cutters Lathe tools, milling cutters, broaches, and thread rolling tools.
● How to choose a gear milling cutter
The accuracy of machining a helical gear with a gear milling cutter is not higher than level 9. Processing low-precision spur bevel gears can also be approximated with gear milling cutters. The tooth shape of this milling cutter is designed according to the tooth shape on the large end surface, and the tooth shape is calculated according to the tooth shape on the small end surface. The indexing circle pressure angle is 20 °. Gear milling cutters for machining straight bevel gears have a "(inverted trapezoid symbol)" trapezoidal mark, and care should be taken when selecting. When selecting the milling cutter number, it should be calculated according to the equivalent number of teeth Zv on the gear cone surface. Zv = z / cosδ ′
● How to choose a gear shaper
The accuracy of the gear shaper is divided into three grades AA, A and B, which are used to process cylindrical gears of grade 6, 7, and 8 respectively.
1. Disc-shaped straight-tooth shaper cutter for processing ordinary straight-tooth external gears and large-diameter inner gears.
2. Bowl-shaped straight-tooth gear cutter for processing tower-shaped and double-coupled straight gears.
3. Taper straight gear shaper cutter for machining straight tooth internal gear. )
● How to choose the gear hob correctly?
(1) When choosing a standard gear hob, the modulus and tooth profile angle of the hob should be the same as the normal modulus and normal tooth profile angle of the gear to be processed.
(2) The accuracy grade of the hob should also correspond to the accuracy grade of the gear to be processed. The gear hob standard specifies four accuracy grades of AA, A, B and C, which are used to process 6-7 , 7-8, 8-9 and 9-10 precision gears.
● Compared with cutting, the main characteristics of grinding are:
1. High speed: linear speed: 30 ～ 50m / s; high speed:> 50m / s
2. High precision: IT6 ～ IT5 level; surface roughness value can reach Ra0.01 ～ 0.04μm
3. High hardness: processing hardened steel, hard alloy and other high hardness materials;
4. High temperature: Grinding temperature can reach above 1000 ℃; use a lot of coolant.
5. The energy consumption of removing material per unit volume is high.
● The grinding wheel consists of three elements abrasive grains, bonding agent, and pores. (Abrasives are divided into abrasives and particle size. Binders are divided into types and hardness. Pore is also called tissue)